GEZİLECEK YER BOLONYA

Bolonya

Kızıldan turuncu, sarı ve pembenin binbir tonuna uzanan sokaklarıyla bolonya, görkemli mimarisi kadar zengin mutfağıyla da cezbedici. günün her saati gezebileceğiniz bu çok katmanlı şehir, günümüzde italya’nın “bilge”, “kızıl” ve şişman” bir abidesi gibi…

italya’nın Emilia-Romagna bölgesinin başkenti ve ülkenin en önemli gastronomi merkezlerinden biri olan Bolonya, sessiz, sakin köşeleriyle kendine has, vakur bir şehir. Aynı zamanda Avrupa’nın en iyi korunmuş Orta çağ şehirlerinden biri olan Bolonya, tarih boyunca pek çok ilke tanıklık etmiş. Dünyanın en eski üniversitesi burada kurulmuş ve şehre “la dotta” yani “bilge” unvanını kazandırmış. Ancak Bolonya, bilge olduğu kadar “kızıl” (la rossa) ve “şişman” (la grassa) da çünkü kızıl renkli bu sokaklarda yürürken nefis kokular karnınızı acıktırabilir. Ve ona neden şişman yakıştırmasının yapıldığını kolayca anlayabilirsiniz.

Dünyanın İlk Üniversitesi Bolonya’da yerleşim, MÖ 6. yüzyılda başlamış. Köklü tarihi boyunca farklı dönemlere tanıklık eden bu kadim şehir için en önemli eşikse 1088 yılında, bugün dünyanın en eski üniversitesi unvanına sahip olan Bolonya Üniversitesi’nin (Universitâ di Bologna) kuruluşu 16 ve 17. yüzyıllarda tıp alanında altın çağını yaşayan, Avrupa’daki kurumların aksine özgür ve bilimsel düşünceyi savunan okul, pozitif bilimlerin filizlerinin atıldığı merkezlerden biri olmuş. Yalnızca bir eğitim kurumu olmayan, tarihe de tanık olan 900 yıllık üniversitenin ünlü mezunları arasında Kopernik’ten Galilei’ye, Dante’den Albrecht Dürer’e kadar düşünceleriyle yaşadığı çağı biçimlendiren birçok aydın var.

Bolonya Mimarisi

Bolonya’ya adımınızı attığınızda dikkatinizi çekecek olan kızıl tuğlalı yapılar, şehrin olağanüstü görünümünü oluşturuyor. Ünlü meydan Maggiore ve çevresindeki yapılar da bunun bir örneği. Ancak şehre “la rossa” yani “kızıl” denmesinin tek sebebi bu değil. Bolonya, Orta Çağ’da bile kilisenin baskısına karşı gelmiş ve yüzyıllar sonra da muhalif kimliğini koruyabilmiş. Bu süreçte en dikkat çeken dönem ise şehrin İtalya’daki faşizm karşıtı bloğun merkezi haline geldiği İkinci Dünya Savaşı yılları.

Mimari ve sanat alanında da doyurucu olan şehirde görmeden geçmemeniz gereken pek çok eser var. En meşhuru Le Due Torri olarak bilinen, Asinelli ve Garisenda isimli eğik kuleler. Garisenda, 48 metre yüksekliğe sahip ancak eğimi nedeniyle tehlikeli bulunduğundan ziyarete kapalı. 498 basamaklı, 97 metre yüksekliğindeki Asinelli ise halkı açık.

Bolonya Meydanı

Etrafi kapılarla çevrili, tipik bir Orta çağ şehri olan Bolonya’nın kalbinin attığı yer ise ünlü meydan Maggiore. Dört bir yanı revaklar, çeşmeler ve farklı tipte Orta Çağ yapılarıyla çevrili meydanda görülmeye değer pek çok yapı var. Örneğin 1390 yılında yapımına başlanan, Gotik tarzdaki San Petronio Bazilikası göz alıcı. Çeşitli siyasi sebepler ve Vatikan tarafindan ihtişamının Roma’daki Aziz Petrus Bazilikası’nı aşacağı endişesi, finansal desteğin kesilmesine ve yapının bugün yarım kalmış bir görünüme sahip olmasına neden olmuş. Ancak yine de San Petronio, 132 metre yüksekliği ve 66 metre genişliğiyle hâlâ dünyanın en büyük bazilikaları arasında.

Neptün Çeşmesi ile uzun yıllar Bolonya’nın şehir meclisi olarak kullanılan ve şimdilerde müzeye dönüştürülen Palazzo Comunale (Palazzo d’Accursio), şehirde mutlaka görmeniz gereken yapılar arasında. Meydandan biraz uzaklaştığınızda ise karşınıza şehrin en eski bazilikası Santo Stefano çıkacak. 5. yüzyılda Aziz Petronius tarafindan inşa ettirilen yapı, kendi içinde yedi farklı kilisenin birleşiminden oluşuyor. Ancak günümüze yalnızca dördü, Crocefisso, Trinitâ, Santo Sepolcro ve Santi Vitale e Agricola ulaşabilmiş.

Bolonya Lezzetleri

Geriye kaldı, ‘la dotta”, yani “şişman” yakıştırması… Bolonya, İtalya’daki tren yollarının kesişiminde yer aldıgı için hem endüstriyel hem de kültürel anlamda bir buluşma noktası haline gelmiş ve bu da beraberinde karşılıklı bir etkileşimi getirmiş. Şehri zenginleştiren bu durum, gelişen sanayinin yanı sıra özellikle muffakta kendini belli ediyor. İtalya’daki yemek kültürünün merkezlerinden biri konumundaki şehrin her yanında, İtalyan mutfağından lezzetler sunan irili ufaklı restorana denk gelmek mümkün. Tortellini ve tagliatelle al ragü ile mortadella ismindeki bölgenin özel salamları ve de ıspanaklı lazanyayı mutlaka tatmalısınız. Ispanaklı dediğime bakmayın çünkü ıspanaklı da olsa lazanyanın içinde mutlaka et bulunuyor.

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