Psikolojik Hastalıklar

Tükenmişlik Sendromu (Burnout)

Sürekli stres, depresyon, uykusuzluk, olumsuz düşünceler ve korkular ciddi bir tükenmişlik hissine yol açabilir. Tükenmişlik sendromu sınırlı bir tanımdan ziyade bir gelişmeyi tarif eder. Bedensel ve psikolojik belirtileri iyileştirmek için hastaların acilen tedavi edilmeleri önemlidir. Fazla streste kendisini belli ettiği için, daha önceleri ‘menajerer hastalığı’ olarak adlandırılan bu hastalığa bugünlerde kendilerini okulda ya da üniversitede baskı altında hisseden genç insanlar da maruz kalıyor. Hastalığın terapisi genelde birkaç hafta sürer, ancak ağır durumlarda terapi birkaç yıla kadar uzayabilir. Erkeklere oranla kadınlarda daha fazla görülür.

Depresyon

Depresyonda olan bir kişi çoğu zaman kendisini kederli ve isteksiz hisseder. Depresyonun başlıca belirtisi, hiçbir şeye karşı ilgi ya da heyecan duyulmamasıdır. Depresyon, insanın sadece bazen kendisini kötü hissetmesi anlamına gelmez.

En bilinen psikolojik hastalık olan depresyonun uzmanlar tarafından tedavi edilmesi gerekir. Depresyon, uyku sorununa, konsantrasyon bozukluğuna, iştahsızlığa ve gelecek ile ilgili olumsuz düşüncelere ve hatta zaman zaman intihar düşüncelerine neden olabilir. Burada da erken teşhis önemlidir. Erkeklere oranla kadınlarda daha fazla görülür.

Anksiyete (Kaygı) Bozukluğu

Bir insan korktuğunda vücudu daha fazla adrenalin salgılar. Böyle durumlarda tetikte olur, çabuk davranırız. Normal hayatta bizi koruyan korku, çok fazla ve durumdan bağımsız ortaya çıkarsa, anksiyete bozukluğu ya da fobiye yol açabilir. En sık görülen rahatsızlıklar kalp çarpıntısı, baş dönmesi ve boğulma korkusudur. Örümcekler, yılanlar ve sınavlar da fobilere yol açabilir. Panik ataklar da genelde bir sebep olmadan ortaya çıkabilir. Genelde kadınlarda daha sık görülür. Erkeklere oranla kadınlarda daha fazla görülür.

Obsesif Kompülsif Bozukluk

Ocağı kapattım mı? Kapıyı kilitledim mi? Bunlar obsesif davranışın hafif örnekleridir. Hastalarda belli düşünceler, fikirler, imajlar sürekli tekrar eder. Örneğin basamakları sürekli sayarlar. Kir de obsesif reaksiyonlara yol açabilir. Hastaların çoğu bunun farkında olsa da buna karşı koymayı başaramaz. Bu psikolojik hastalık çoğu kez sosyal çevreyi de etkiler, sosyal ilişkilerin bozulmasına yol açabilir. Erkeklere oranla kadınlarda daha fazla görülür.

Bipolar Bozukluk

Bipolar bozuklukta insanlar depresif ve manik dönemler arasında gidip gelir. Depresif olduğunda kendisini bitkin hisseden bir insan, manik döneminde heyecanlı ve coşkulu olur, bu dönemde kendini riske atar. Bir diğer adı manik depresif bozukluk olan bipolar bozukluk hem psikoterapiyle hem de ilaçla tedavi edilir. Almanya’da yaklaşık iki milyon insan bu psikolojik hastalığın mağduru. Erken teşhis ve terapi, hastalığın gelişimini olumlu bir şekilde etkileyebilir. Erkeklere oranla kadınlarda daha fazla görülür.

Borderline Kişilik Bozukluğu

Bu hastalığın belirtileri yalnız kalma korkusu, sağlam olmayan ilişkiler, kendi vücuduna yabancılaşma ve depresyondur. Hastalar çoğu kez kendilerine zarar verir, örneğin bir jiletle kollarını keserler. Uzmanlara göre bu hastaların geçmişinde çoğu zaman tecavüz ya da duygusal ihmal vakaları bulunur. Borderline kişilik bozukluğuna sahip kişilerde uyuşturucu kullanımı sık olarak görülür.

Anoreksiya Nervoza

Almanya’da bağımlılık en önde gelen psikolojik hastalıkların arasındadır. Anoreksiya nervoza da bu grup içinde incelenmektedir. Hastalar yeterince yemek yemediği ve sürekli kilo vermeye çalıştığı için bunun en belirgin belirtisi aşırı derecede kilo kaybıdır. Birçok hasta aşırı derecede spor yapar. Kilo kaybetmelerine rağmen kendilerini şişman olarak görür ve fazla yağlardan rahatsız olurlar. Sürekli kilolarını kontrol ederler. Onları meşgul eden konu yemek, daha doğrusu yememekdir. Bu hastalığa yakalananlar kendilerinin hasta olduklarını düşünmezler. Genelde kadınlarda daha sık görülür.

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